閱讀：淡水湖4 千米冰層以下有larger ，complex organism
1. VNP samples 樣本中可以看到很多這種larger ， complex organism
2. 有能量來源，有Volcanic vents
3. 有發現Parasite bacteria 暗示有宿主host 存在，說明肯定有像fish oyster 等complex organisms 宿主的存在
1. Sample 可能會被contaminated ，況且這個淡水湖外部就有很多這種complex organism 所以不能說明一定是來自這個湖的
2. 這種所謂的火山噴發提供能量不靠譜，因為這個lake 跟Atlantic 之間有ocean currents 所以后可能是大西洋洋流過去的
3. 寄生蟲不一定非要依靠宿主， Parasite 可以live independently 所以也無法說明這里有 complex organisms
The author in the reading passage gives three reasons to prove that there are larger, complex organism 4000 meters under the ice layer of one specific freshwater lake. However, the professor in the lecture presents strong counterevidence to refute such reasons.
The first reason raised by the author is that larger, complex organisms are found exactly in the VNP samples. But according to the professor, the samples are highly likely to be contaminated. Besides, this large, complex organism also exists outside the lake. So it cannot necessarily come from the lake.
Next, the author says that 4000 meters under the ice layer of this lake provides such organism nutrition with volcanic vents, so it is not strange to find this large, complex organism there. However, this is still not convincing according to the professor. The volcanic vents may be transferred there by ocean currents from Atlantic.
The last reason given by the author is that parasite bacteria is found there, indicating that complex organisms, which serve as host, such as fish, oysters must exist. But in fact, parasite bacteria can also live independently. So, parasite bacteria cannot necessarily mean that there‘’s this large, complex organism.
A city wants to help teachers of its high school students (age14-18) improve their teaching. It is considering two plans:
1. Choose a small group of excellent teachers; these teachers will attend a class led by an expert for additional training in how to teach effectively, and they will then come back to their schools and provide that training for other teachers in school.
2. Provide additional training in teaching effectively for high school teachers, using online material that each teacher will study individually.
該話題與教育相關，仔細分析題目，該題目實際考的是當面授課(只不過這里的授課對象 是老師)和在線授課哪個更好。另外，因為對象是老師，老師還得教學生，所以還要考慮 信息準確性的問題。
總觀點： Providing additional training in teaching though online training course is more effective in improving their teaching.
Education has become increasingly important during recent decades. It is regarded by 90% countries in the world as the most crucial aspect in their nations? successful development. So, both national governments and local governments spare no efforts to improve the teaching quality in every school. Some cities propose that in order to achieve this, training to high school teachers must be accentuated since teachers are the essence of good education, providing face-to-face training course and online courses. As far as I am concerned, the best approach to enhance training to high school teachers is to provide every teacher with training course through internet.
The first reason is that when face-to-face course can be only available to a small group of teachers, the information passed on by them to other teachers might be incomplete, or even worse, mistaken. I remember a game conducted by my class last year. The teacher told the student who sat in the last row an English sentence. All the students were asked to repeat the sentence to the student just in front of him. Then the student in the first row needed to write down that sentence on the blackboard. Five group of students joined in this game. Unfortunately, none of them succeeded to write down the correct sentence the teacher said. Similar experiments have also been done by some sociologist and the result is also similar--information passed on by someone else is not always reliable. By the same token, if only a small group of teachers are to be trained and they go back and tell other teachers, there's high possibility they omit or mistake something, which will eventually lead to the failure of the training project. What's worse, students may be misled by the wrong methods or incorrect knowledge.
The second reason is that online training course is more convenient. The biggest reason is that when a city needs to arrange the face-to-face training course, it must consider teachers? available time. This is not an easy thing because the expert as well as every teacher who is going to attend the training course both has work to do and personal business to deal with. Online course is good way to solve this problem. The expert can give a live class online which all teachers can watch on their computer screen or their smart phone screen. For those teachers who cannot attend the live class, watching recorded playback can still guarantee that they can obtain all information given by the experts. Besides, online course allows teachers to learn an important lecture repeatedly.
This is also important to help them have a better command of what the experts want to convey. Moreover, the courses can also be pre-recorded. Such pre-recorded online class will not be affected by the experts? urgent issues and can also be perfect. This is convenient to the expert who is going to give the training course.
Some educational experts claim that face-to-face training course is superior to online course because they allow all teachers have discussion. Actually, online course is capable of this also. Professional on-line course platforms allow learners discuss with the lecturer as well as other course takers.
So it is clear that on-line course has competitive edge over traditional training course. So, to put it into a nutshell, it is wise for a city to give online training course, which is with higher efficiency and greater effectiveness, to every high school teacher if it is aimed to improve its educational quality of high school. (586words )